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There is a very famous saying that, “The pen is mightier than the sword”. It is true since your words can make someone’s day or it may ruin it. So, it’s always wise to choose your words wisely. But in today’s world of social media, people speak their heart out without thinking much. So, in this article, we’ll see how positive or negative people can be on these social media platforms.

Problem Statement

  • We are going to review twitter’s data to find the sentiment of people on this platform.


As a machine learning engineer, AdaBoost is one hell of an algorithm to have in your arsenal. It is based on boosting ensemble technique and is widely used in the machine learning world. Before we dive deep into this article, you should have a basic idea about the Decision Tree and Random Forest algorithm.

Let’s get started


In my previous article, we discussed the decision tree algorithm. Although the decision tree is a very cool intuitive algorithm it carries with it the curse of overfitting. In this article, we’ll build upon the idea of a decision tree and learn about the random forest algorithm which is widely used in the machine learning world.

Random Forest Algorithm

  • According to Wikipedia

Random forests or random decision forests are an ensemble learning method for classification, regression and other tasks that operates by constructing a multitude of decision trees at training time and outputting the class that is the mode of…


Decision Tree

The decision tree is one of the tree-based algorithms in the machine learning domain. It is highly intuitive and easy to understand which makes it super useful in solving some of the classic machine learning problems.

So, without wasting much time we’ll dive deep into the nitty-gritty details of this algorithm.

What is a Decision Tree?

  • The decision tree can be used to handle categorical and numerical data.


K Nearest Neighbor

You’re the average of the five people spend the most time with.

The above quote closely sums up what K-Nearest Neighbors algorithm is. The only difference is that in KNN the number of friends may vary.

K-Nearest Neighbors is a very simple but intuitive machine learning algorithm and we’ll deep dive into the nitty-gritty details of this algorithm.

What is K-Nearest Neighbors Algorithm?

K-Nearest Neighbors is a classification algorithm(can be used for regression also) that works on the basic principle that the points belonging to the same class should be closer to each other. …


Model Evaluation is one of the most important steps in developing a machine learning pipeline. Just imagine, designing a model and then straight away deploying it on production. And Suppose, your model is being used in the medical domain, then it may lead to the death of multiple people(if your model performs poorly). But don’t worry, this article will provide you with all the tools needed to evaluate and improve your model performance.

Classification Problems

As we know, classification problems are those problems in which the output is a discrete value.For e.g. spam detection,cancer detection etc.

For the scope of…


In this article we’ll address the following topics:

  • Why we need activation functions

Why do we need Activation Functions?

Let’s take an example of a single neuron. Each neuron performs two functions:

  • Calculate the weighted sum of all input features
z = w1*x1 + w2*x2 + w3*x3 - (Eq.1)(where x1,x2,x3 are input features and w1,w2,w3 are weights)
a = f(z) where f is the activation function.

So the activation function basically provides a non-linearity to z, which helps in learning complex functions…


One of the most basic data science interview questions we are asked is about different optimization algorithms in deep learning. This article will be a one stop draft for all the information regarding optimization algorithms.

What we’ll cover?

We’ll cover the following optimization algorithms with their pros and cons:

  1. Algorithms based on weight update rule.
  • Gradient Descent

2. Batch size based optimization algorithms.

  • Batch Gradient Descent

3. Adaptive learning rate based optimization algorithms.

  • Adagrad

So, without wasting much time we’ll start with our…


One of the concepts of machine learning that is easy to learn but difficult to master is Bias and Variance. It’s like Artificial Intelligence for newbies, they talk a lot about it but don't’ know how it works internally(no offense, guys).

Understanding Bias and Variance

Whenever we are training our model, what we want is that the model have a minimum loss and we get a decision boundary that differentiates classes with high accuracy. But that is not always what we get.

We take a dataset and divide it into 3 parts: train set, validation set, and test set. The…


Whenever someone decides to enter into the world of data science, the one library he needs to learn is NumPy. NumPy Stands for Numerical Python and this article will be like a crash course in NumPy.

So Why Numpy?

NumPy is similar to python list and can perform most of the operations python lists perform but NumPy has its own advantages for which it is the preferred library for handling large numerical data. Some of these are:

  • NumPy, unlike python lists, has homogenous data type because of which it can be densely packed into memory and it also frees memory…

Arpan Srivastava

AI enthusiast with a desire to share ideas

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